Getting Started for Pilots

This tutorial will show you the steps required to join IVAO as a virtual pilot. It is meant to give you a short overview about the tools used, and some very basic instructions how to “behave” in this new environment.

1. Registration at IVAO.AERO and Select Hong Kong Division

a. Select divison: “Hong Kong” (NOT China) at the Registration Form
b. 1st email received contains a set of ID and password for Registration Confirmation.
c. 2nd email received after the confirmation contains the following information:

  • Your IVAO Member ID
  • IVAN Password (For IvAc, IvAp & Teamspeak 2)
  • Website Password (For website and IVAO forum)
  • ATC / Pilot Rating


2. Join a Virtual Airlines

A virtual airline (VA) is a dedicated hobby organization whose aim is to simulate the flights and the traffic to model the operations of an airline.
Virtual airlines have a presence on the Internet, similar to a real airline. Some virtual airlines cover countries, or continents, while some operate internationally.

IVAO-HK has already established partnerships with several virtual airlines in Hong Kong.

Virtual Airlines

3. Download and Install IVAP – IVAO Pilot Client

The first thing you need to do is download our pilot client, IvAp, which will allow you to connect to the network.

  • IvAp v2: FS X & Prepar 3D
  • IvAp v1: FS 2002 and FS 2004
  • X-IvAp: X-Plane

Once you have downloaded the program, you should run the executable file and install the program.

Teamspeak 2 and FSUPIC is required and included in the installation process.

We are using TeamSpeak for our voice communications, so if you intend to use voice for your communication with the Air Traffic Controllers (ATC) and you do not have TeamSpeak 2 installed on your computer, you should select also TeamSpeak to be installed. FSUIPC is a small module necessary for your online flying. If you do not have FSUIPC installed on your computer (or if you do not know what it is), select also FSUIPC to be installed.

Configuration settings: (Start Menu → All Programs → IVAO → IvAp – IVAO Virtual Pilot Client → IvAp – Configuration) and set the required options.
Check the IvAp manual for a detailed description on each of the settings.


4. Install MTL (Multiplayer Traffic Library)

MTL (Multiplayer Traffic Library) will enable you to “see” other aircraft around you by installing hundreds of aircraft and their liveries into your flight simulator.

The MTL package is included in the IvAp download and will automatically install itself when installing IvAp. After installation of IvAp has completed, the MTL Downloader will run automatically and ask yout to initiate download of the MTL files.

Press the green “Full Install” button to install all the MTL aircraft. Alternatively, you can select the MTL you wish to install from the list.

If you are installing all the MTL, there are over 3000 models to download so this may take some time. Once the aircraft have been downloaded, an MS-DOS window will open – do not close this window. Allow it to complete its tasks.

You may notice that Flight Sim takes long to load up due to the amount of MTL installed. You can reduce this time by hiding the MTL, which will not affect your Flightsim or IVAO experience. This can be done by visiting Start Menu → All Programs → IVAO → IvAp – IVAO Virtual Pilot Client → MTL Hide Aircraft. The following program may take a number of minutes to complete so even if it looks like your PC isn’t doing anything, it is. Eventually, the MS-DOS window will open up again.

Tip: Execute your MTL installer periodically to download the latest MTL updates.

5. Teamspeak (Installed automatically)

We use the TeamSpeak 2 program for voice communication. Text communication is permitted but voice is preferred. Teamspeak is included in the IvAp download package, and will be installed automatically during the installation of IvAp.

Important: IVAO is only compatible with TeamSpeak Version 2! Should you have TeamSepak 3 installed already, install our version, too.

Once you have installed and have run Teamspeak, there are some settings you must change. Open Settings → Sound Input/Output Settings.

You should select the “Push to talk” method and select a key by pressing “Set”. Here you can see that Mouse btn 2 (mouse scroll wheel) has been selected as the push to talk key. Now, every time you want to transmit to the controller on the frequency, you must first press the push to talk key, speak and then let go of the push to talk key. Avoid using the “Voice Activation” method as this opens your microphone whenever noise is picked up so background noise and even you breathing, may set it off. You could then be transmitting over the channel without realising it.

Tip: As a “Push to Talk” button, select a key that does not have any function in your Flight Simulator. If this key has any function in your Flight Simulator, every time you press it to talk in TeamSpeak, the Flight Simulator function will be activated.

6. Start your first flight!

The following steps are based on FSX.

Load Flight sim and create a flight.

You will notice that a new menu has appeared in the flight sim task bar called “IVAO” (FS X users: Addons → IVAO). Select this menu and then press “Start IvAp”. The IvAp program will now load.

You will now see the IvAp window in the top left hand corner of your Flight Sim.

Some important things to do before connecting to the network:

  • Make sure that when you are connected, your aircraft is parked at a gate. Do not connect on the runway or on a taxiway. When choosing your airfield within the Flight Sim menus, it automatically places you on the active runway so ensure that you have selected a gate in the appropriate drop down menu.
  • Do not use the slew option in flight sim to slew around the airport once you are connected. If you have to change gates just after you connected, use the options within flight sim to load your aircraft at a new gate.
  • If connecting with an airline callsign, you must use the airlines ICAO code followed by the flight number, i.e. BAW123 not BA123.

To connect, press the “CONN” button. You will then be presented with a new window.

Enter the details:

  • Callsign: The callsign of your aircraft, this could be your aircraft registration or flight number for example.
  • Real Name: Your full name that you registered with IVAO.
  • VID: Your IVAO VID that was assigned to you when you joined.
  • Base Airport: An airport close to where you live, your VA base, or any airport you would class as your “base airport”.
  • Password: The IVAN password you were assigned when you joined IVAO.
  • Aircraft Type: The type of aircraft you are flying.
  • MTL Model: The aircraft and livery you want other people to see you as.
  • Server: The server you are connecting to. For best performance, use the one auto selected.
  • Port: Leave this box as it is!
  • If you can transmit and receive on voice, select that option. If you can receive voice but cant transmit voice, select that option. If you are text only, select no voice.

Once again, make sure your aircraft is parked at a gate before connecting! When all of the above details are correct, press the “Connect” button.

7. Submit a flight plan

On the IVAO Network, it is mandatory to file a flight plan for every flight. Before or after connecting to IVAN, open IvAp and press the buttons “ACARS” and “Send Flightplan”, then fill in the form. Most fields will be unknown to you, for your first flight it is sufficient to fill flight rules, departure aerodrome, route and destination aerodrome.

Some airspaces are very compact, complicated and get very congested. We recommend that your first flight is a local flight at a quiet airport (and not the big international field of your capital!) in order to start with a simple setup. The easiest way is a local flight according to Visual Flight Rules, that is doing traffic patterns around the airfield and flying in the vicinity of the airport.

For such a flight, fill in the flight plan as follows and refer to the picture for the location of the mentioned items:

  • Field 8, Flight Rules: “V” for VFR flight.
  • Field 13, Departure Aerodrome: Enter the ICAO-Code of your departure.
  • Field 15, Route: “LOCAL” or “DCT” for your local flight.
  • Field 16, Destination Aerodrome: Enter the ICAO-Code of your destination, in this case the same as departure for your local flight.

Later on, you might want to fly a route from A to B, employing Instrument Flight Rules. To find your way, you should follow the “motorways” in the sky, or airways. There are many different sources to find these routes. The best place to get routes is from the IVAO Route Database, which lists many popular city pairs. The routes found in this database are the routings that real aircraft follow through the air. Routes can also be found at the external website Routefinder.

You will need to have enroute and aerodrome charts at your disposal to follow those routes. Controllers use these charts as well and will expect you to have them. Charts for your flight can be found on the division’s website of the country you are flying at (see active divisions list). Another good method is to query your favourite internet search engine for the words “[ICAO code] charts”, replace “[ICAO code]” with the code of your departure/destination airfield.

Tip: You can visit the IVAO Academy and see in more details the parts of the flight plan and how to fill it out.

8. Interact with Air Traffic Controller

The purpose of IVAO is to fly online with virtual Air Traffic Controllers guiding you through the skies. You should therefore have an understanding of how to communicate with controllers. The United Kingdom Division = offers an example of how to communicate for a VFR and IFR flight. You may also check out our Training Examples in our website.

When connected and ready to start your flight, you have to make sure if there is an online ATC station in your airport or area. To do so, type in your IvAp .ATC and a list will appear with all active controllers in your area, including their respective frequencies. See the example below:

Tune the proper frequency of the controller in your radio shack. From now you can communicate with the controller.

If you have selected to use voice for your communications, when inserted the appropriate frequency, you will also automatically join the TeamSpeak channel of the controller.

Before contacting the controller you should retrieve his ATIS. Knowing the information of the controller’s ATIS will help you communicating and flying in his airspace. To retrieve the ATIS, you can follow the steps below:

The primary form of communication with ATC is voice. However, text communication may be used. When communicating via voice, there are some important things you should remember:

  • When a controller or another pilot transmits on the frequency, wait until the other station has acknowledged and replied to the transmission before you transmit something.
  • When you first connect to a new frequency, wait for a few seconds before transmitting. You may inadvertently interrupt a conversation.

Tip: If you have trouble tuning to a controller’s frequency using your airplane radios, you can type in your IvAp .c [the proper frequency] and hit enter, example: .c 132.975.

9. Switch to Unicom (if there is no ATC around)

If there is no ATC online in the area where you are flying, you should tune to the Unicom frequency of 122.800 (a text only frequency) and broadcast your intentions. When flying on Unicom, keep a good look out for other traffic that may be operating in your area.

The “UNICOM” frequency here on IVAO is a text-only frequency. This means that all your transmissions in this frequency are done only by text. Hence when you select this frequency, you will not join automatically a TeamSpeak channel.

Unicom is not to be used as a chat channel. It should be used for operational messages only. You should use the private message feature within IvAp to chat to individual people.

When you first load flight sim, the default frequency is 122.950. If there is no ATC at your departure aerodrome, please remember to first of all tune to Unicom 122.800 or you may transmit your intentions on the wrong frequency.

Tip: The UNICOM frequency is not meant to chat with other pilots. If you wish to chat with another pilot or ATC, type in your IVAP .chat [airplane or ATC callsign], hit enter and a chat window opens.


  1. Pilot users shall not connect to the network while positioned on a runway or taxiway as this may cause conflicts with other aircraft. (IVAO Rules and Regulations 6.1.4)
  2. Prior to each flight, all pilot users are required to file a flight plan through the approved pilot software. (IVAO Rules and Regulations 6.3.2)
  3. In areas without air traffic control, pilot users should check for air traffic control on a regular basis and contact the appropriate air traffic control station when requested to do so. (IVAO Rules and Regulations 6.3.5)
  4. There are plenty of resources in this website to provide assistance. You may find what you need on this page.

And Finally…

Have fun! This is an incredibly addictive hobby. As soon as you start flying online, you will never go back to offline flying and will wonder why you didn’t do it sooner! I am looking forward to seeing you flying with us in Hong Kong Division!

Getting Started for ATC

This tutorial will show you the steps required to join IVAO as a virtual Air Traffic Controller (ATC). It is meant to give you a short overview about the tools used, and some very basic instructions how to “behave” in this new environment.

1. Registration at IVAO.AERO and Select Hong Kong Division

a. Select divison: “Hong Kong” (NOT China) at the Registration Form
b. 1st email received contains a set of ID and password for Registration Confirmation.
c. 2nd email received after the confirmation contains the following information:

  • Your IVAO Member ID
  • IVAN Password (For IvAc, IvAp & Teamspeak 2)
  • Website Password (For website and IVAO forum)
  • ATC / Pilot Rating


2. Download and Install IVAC – IVAO Controller Client

The first thing you need to do is download our ATC client, IvAc, which will allow you to connect to the network.

Once you have downloaded the program, you should run the executable file and install the program.

A manual has been provided, too. Make sure you read it during you first online hours to acquaint yourself with operation of the software.


3. TeamSpeak – ATC Voice Communication

We use the TeamSpeak 2 program for voice communication. Text communication is permitted but voice is preferred.

Teamspeak 2 is included in the IvAc download package, and will be installed automatically during the installation of IvAc.

Important: IVAO is only compatible with TeamSpeak Version 2! Should you have TeamSepak 3 installed already, install our version, too.

Once you have installed and have run Teamspeak, there are some settings you must change. Open Settings → Sound Input/Output Settings.

You should select the “Push to talk” method and select a key by pressing “Set”. Here you can see that Mouse btn 2 (mouse scroll wheel) has been selected as the push to talk key. Now, every time you want to transmit to a pilot on the frequency, you must first press the push to talk key, speak and then let go of the push to talk key. Avoid using the “Voice Activation” method as this opens your microphone whenever noise is picked up so background noise and even you breathing, may set it off. You could then be transmitting over the channel without realising it.

4. Download and Load a sector file

A sector file is the “map” displayed on your radar screen. It contains data layers with information about airport location and layout, navigational data like navigational aids, navigation fixes and airways as well as airspace boundaries. Depending on the detail provided, it also shows geographical information like runway/taxiway layout at an airport or coastlines, rivers and roads.

To work at an ATC position, it is essential for you to obtain such a sector file. Once you have joined our division as a controller and logged in our website with your facebook account, you may download our sector file under CONTROLLER RESOURCES -> SECTOR FILE & SOFTWARE. Remember to read through our Manual of Hong Kong Sector File before download:

Once you have downloaded your sectorfile, you have to load it with your IvAc. Press the PVD button and then Load SectorFile and select the appropriate sectorfile.

Hong Kong Sector File

5. First Connection

We will now connect you as an Observer at Hong Kong Airport. As an Observer, you are free to watch the traffic fly around and you may listen to active ATC. You have no duties, that means you are not in charge of any traffic yet.

Load IvAc and open the desired sector file, as described in the step above.

An important consideration before connecting to the network for the first time: Your first connections should be as an Observer, without actual ATC duties. This will help you to make yourself familiar with the software and IVAO while avoiding trouble with pilots who will contact you for a clearance sooner or later. Use the chance to listen in on active ATC frequencies and learn!

Now, press the CONNECT button.

Enter the details in the connection window:

  • Callsign: Your callsign. At this time, you will connect as an Observer, so the callsign can be anything, but must end with “_OBS”. We suggest you use your division abbreviation followed by your initials, for example: ZA_MR_OBS.
  • Real Name: Your full name that you registered with IVAO.
  • VID: Your IVAO VID that was assigned to you when you joined.
  • Password: The IVAN password you were assigned when you joined IVAO.
  • Server Address: The server you are connecting to. For best performance, use the one auto selected. Do not use the Training server. It is for scheduled training sessions only!
  • Port: Leave this box as it is!
  • Voice: Select on to have IvAc connect you to a TeamSpeak server automatically.

Once all of the above details are entered, press the Connect button.

When you have successfully connected, you will receive a welcome message in the MSG tab of IvAc’s COMMBox, and the CONNECT button will now read DISCON.

Tip: You can find the manual of IvAc on your IvAc installation folder to find answers to your questions and explore the capabilities of the program.

6. Connecting as Air Traffic Controller

Your first connection as an Air Traffic Controller on the IVAO network requires a basic understanding of the procedures employed at the place you will control. Check you division’s website for those procedures and charts for the aerodrome.

Some important things to consider before connecting to the network:

  • Before connecting as an active ATC station, make sure you have the proper sector file and required documents and charts ready. Pilots will rely on you having a basic knowledge of your airspace and airport as well as its procedures.
  • For your first steps it is strongly recommended that you connect as a Ground or Tower Controller at a less crowded place to get used to your new environment and duties.

Once you have prepared those items, you can attempt a connection. Use the steps as provided in the chapter “First Connection”, with these changes:

  • Callsign: Enter VHHH_DEL (for a Ground Position) or VHHH_GND (for a Tower Position) accordingly.
  • Voice: As it is highly recommended to use voice procedures, tick the box and select a suitable server.

As all fields are completed, press the Connect button.

Two final, but important steps:

  • IvAc established a connection to the selected TeamSpeak server, but did not create your ATC channel. Do so yourself by selecting Channels → Create New Channel in TeamSpeak. Enter your callsign – the same you used in IvAc! – in the Name field and press Create Channel.
  • Switch IvAc to the proper frequency. Pilots will dial your ATC station’s published frequency to contact you. Make sure IvAc is tuned to it as well! To do so, select the first tab in the COMMBox and type//123.456, replacing the numbers with your frequency (DEL for 121.6 and GND for 122.55) and hit ENTER. Observe the caption of the tab change to the entered frequency.

7. Set up an ATIS

The most important information about an aerodrome is included in the ATIS. “ATIS” stands for Automated Terminal Information Service. As an ATIS transmits important status information about an airfield, it is important to set it up properly. The weather data is included automatically. You should add runway information (the current runway in use for departures and arrivals), transition altitude/transition level and if necessary some important information (like “Runway 07R closed” or “TD VOR unserviceable”).

Important: Even though runways are mainly assigned by wind direction, and the transition values can be obtained from charts, actual procedures might differ. You should therefore seek information from your local division about standard procedures beforehand!

Tip: For more information about ATIS and how to correctly set up your ATIS, check the ADC Book, Chapter 3.

8. Interaction with Pilots

In general, the two most basic ATC positions here on IVAO are “Ground” (xxxx_GND) position. As a Ground controller you will be responsible for all the airplanes moving on your aerodrome surface, excluding the runways. This means that your duties will be to issue the IFR clearances and guide the airplanes from the gate to the runway and the opposite in an safe, regular and expeditious manner. For more details of your duties as controller to the various ATC positions, check for example at ATC STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURES on our website . Examples of the phraseology used during communications can be found as well in the above link.

As a controller here on IVAO, you will use your IvAc screen to “see” the online traffic, and use voice or text to communicate with them. Below you can see an example of how your IvAc screen will look like.

  1. The Flight Strip. When you select a flight, it will show a collection the most important parts of the flight plan (origin, destination, route, requested cruising flight level etc.).
  2. This is how every flight looks like on your radar screen – the radar target. It is composed of a small square (the actual position of the aircraft) and its label. The label consists of the most important actual information of this aircraft (current ground speed and altitude, type of aircraft and others).
  3. The commbox. Through the commbox, you can communicate with the pilots using text, retrieve the airport METARs, talk via private chat with other pilots or controllers (and more!).

Tip: Before you start your career as an virtual ATC, you could join the channel of other controllers and listen to the communications. This will make you more familiar to the controller’s phraseology!

Have fun! This is an incredibly addictive hobby. As soon as you start doing ATC online, you will never go back to offline ATC simulations and will wonder why you didn’t do it sooner!


本教程將告訴您加入IVAO作虛擬飛行所需的步驟。 目的是要為大家介紹使用的工具,以及一些非常基本的說明:這個新的環境下如何「飛行」的簡短概述。



a. 選擇香港分部 Division: “Hong Kong” (不是中國 China)
b. 第一封電子郵件,在提交申請後,您會收到一封包含了一組ID和密碼的電子郵件用作確認登記.
c. 第二封電子郵件在報名確認後,包含以下信息:

  • 會員帳號(即IVAO ID號)
  • IVAN密碼(於IVAC,IVAP和Teamspeak 2使用)
  • 網站密碼d (於總部網站IVAO論壇使用)
  • 管制員/飛行員等級



虛擬航空公司(Virtual Airlines)是一個專門的業餘愛好組織,其目的是為了模擬飛行和模擬航空公司的運作。
虛擬航空公司大多有網站,類似於一個真正的航空公司。 一些虛擬航空公司覆蓋的國內或地區航線,而一些則經營國際航線。

IVAO香港已經與多個本地虛擬航空公司建立了合作夥伴關係。 請看看我們的合作夥伴。




  • IvAp v2: FS X & Prepar 3D
  • IvAp v1: FS 2002 and FS 2004
  • X-IvAp: X-Plane


在安裝過程中,你會被詢問是否想安裝TeamSpeak和FSUIPC。 我們正在使用TeamSpeak 2我們的語音通信程式,因此如果你打算使用話音與空中交通管制員(ATC)進行溝通,你必須選擇安裝TeamSpeak 2。 FSUIPC是網上飛行需要一個模組。 如果你沒有在電腦上安裝FSUIPC(或者,如果你不知道它是什麼),請選擇安裝FSUIPC。

當安裝完畢,你應該執行設置( 開始菜單→所有程序→IVAO→IVAP – IVAO Virtual Pilot Client→IVAP -Configuration),並設置所需的選項。 檢查IVAP手冊上的每個設置的詳細說明。




MTL已包含在IVAP下載中,與IVAP​​一起自動安裝。 安裝後IVAP已完成,MTL會自動執行,並要求啟動MTL文件的下載。

按下綠色的「完全安裝」按鈕來安裝所有的MTL的飛機。 或者,你可以從列表中選擇你想安裝的機種。

如果要安裝所有超過3000款的飛機,下載將需要一些時間。 當飛機已經被下載後,MS-DOS窗口將打開 – 請不要關閉該窗口。 允許它完成它的任務。

您可能會注意到,模擬飛行需要很長的時間載入MTL。 您可以通過隱藏飛機縮短這一時間,這不會影響你的模擬飛行或IVAO體驗。 IVAO Virtual Pilot Client→MTL→Hide all aircraft也可以使用開始菜單→所有程序→IVAO→IVAP來完成。 可能需要若干分鐘才能完成,即使你的電腦看起來像沒有做任何事情。 最終,在MS-DOS窗口將再次打開。


5 Teamspeak(自動安裝)

我們使用TeamSpeak 2方案為話音通訊系統。我們允許文字通訊,但聲音通訊是首選。 Teamspeak包括在IVAP下載包,並且會在IVAP​​的安裝過程中自動安裝。

重要提示:IVAO只和TeamSpeak 2版兼容如果你有TeamSepak 3已經安裝了,請再安裝我們的版本

一旦你安裝並運行Teamspeak,有一些設置,你必須更變。 打開設置→聲音輸入/輸出設置 。

你應該選擇「Push to talk」的方式,按「設置」中選擇。 在這裡,您可以看到Right Ctrl(右控制鍵)已被選定為按鍵通話鍵。 現在,你想要傳送話音時,都必須先按下按鍵通話鍵,說話,然後放開的通話鍵。 避免使用「Voice Activation」的方法,因為這會傳送出麥克風接收到的背景噪音,甚至你的呼吸聲,而且還會將話音發射了而不自知。

提示:作為「Push to talk」按鈕,選擇一個沒有你的飛行模擬器的任何功能鍵。 如果這個鍵在飛行模擬器中有任何功能,每次按下TeamSpeak的通話鍵時,飛行模擬器功能將被激活。




你會發現,一個新的菜單出現在模擬飛行任務欄叫「IVAO」(FS X用戶:Add on→IVAO)。 選擇此菜單,然後按「開始IVAP」。 該IVAP程序現在將加載。



  • 確保當您連接時,您的飛機停在停機坪。 不要連接在跑道或滑行道,當模擬飛行菜單中選擇你的飛機場,它會自動將你放在跑道。請確保你在相應的下拉菜單中選擇了一個停機位。
  • 一旦你連接後不要在模擬飛行跳到其他機場。 如果您有連接剛過改門,使用中飛行的選項SIM卡裝入你的飛機在一個新的大門。
  • 如果連接與航空公司的呼號,你必須使用航空公司ICAO代碼後面的航班號,即BAW123而非BA123。

要連接,按下“CONN”按鈕。 然後,您將看到一個新的窗口。


  • 呼號:你的飛機的呼號,這可能是你的飛機註冊或航班號為例子。
  • 真實姓名:您認為您IVAO註冊的全名。
  • VID:已分配給你,當你加入你的IVAO的VID。
  • 基地機場:機場靠近你住的地方,你的弗吉尼亞州基地,或者任何一個機場,你會類作為您的“基地機場”。
  • 密碼:當您加入IVAO被分配IVAN密碼 。
  • 機型:飛機,你飛的類型。
  • MTL號:你希望別人看到你的飛機塗裝。
  • 伺服器:您要連接到伺服器。 為了獲得最佳性能,請使用一個自動選擇的。
  • 端口:不要更變
  • 如果你可以發送和接收語音,請選擇該選項。 如果你能接受的聲音,但不能傳輸語音,請選擇該選項。 如果你只在文字上,選擇沒有語音。



在IVAO網絡,每次飛行提交飛行計劃是強制性的 。 連接到網絡時或之前,開啟IVAP並按下按鈕「ACARS」和「發送航班計劃」後,再填寫表格。 大多數字段將是未知的你,為你的第一次飛行就足以填補飛行規則,起飛機場,航路和目的地機場。

有些空域非常緊湊,複雜,會非常擁擠。 我們建議您第一次飛行是在一個安靜的機場,以便從一個簡單的設置本地航班(而不是你的資本的國際大場!)。 最簡單的方法是按照目視飛行規則,這是做圍繞機場的交通模式和飛行在機場附近的地方飛行。


  • 現場8,飛行規則:“V”型的目視飛行規則飛行。
  • 現場13,出發機場:請輸入您的出發國際民航組織代碼。
  • 現場15路線:“本地”或“DCT”為當地的航班。
  • 現場16,目的地機場:輸入您的目的地的國際民航組織代碼,在這種情況下,相同出發的地方飛行。

後來,你可能要飛的路線從A到B,使用儀表飛行規則。 找到自己的方式,你應該遵循在天空中“高速公路”,或氣道。 有很多不同的來源,以找到這些路由。 獲得途徑的最好的地方是從IVAO路線數據庫 ,其中列出了許多流行的城市對。 在這個數據庫中找到的途徑是真正的跟隨飛機在空中的路線。 路由也可以在外部網站上找到路徑尋找者 。

您將需要有航路和機場的圖表在您的處置遵循這些路線。 控制器使用這些圖表,以及與期望你有他們。 圖表客機可以在你飛在國家的分裂的網站上找到(見現役師名單 )。 另一個好方法是與您的出發地/目的地機場的代碼查詢您最喜愛的互聯網搜索引擎中的“[ICAO代碼]圖”,將“[ICAO代碼]”。

提示:您可以參觀IVAO學院 ,看到更詳細的飛行計劃的部分,以及如何填寫。


IVAO的目的是網上飛與虛擬空中交通管制員引導您完成整個天空。 因此,你應該知道如何與虛擬空中交通管制員通訊。

連接並準備開始你的航班時,你必須確保如果在您的機場或地區的空管網上電台。 要做到這一點,輸入您的IVAP.ATC和一個列表會出現在你的區域內的所有主動控制器,包括他們各自的頻率。 見下面的例子:

收聽適當的頻率。 從現在開始,你可以與虛擬空中交通管制員通訊。


在控制器與您聯繫應該找回自己的ATIS。 知道了控制器的ATIS的信息將幫助你溝通和飛在他的領空。 要檢索的ATIS,你可以按照下面的步驟進行:

與空管溝通的主要形式是聲音。 然而,也可以使用文本通信。 當通過語音交流,也有你應該記住一些重要的事情:

  • 當一個控制器或另一名飛行員的頻率發射,等到其他場站確認並回复發送您傳送東西之前。
  • 當你第​​一次連接到一個新的頻率,等待幾秒鐘發射之前。 您可能會在無意中打斷談話。

提示:如果你有麻煩調諧到控制器的頻率使用你的飛機收音機,你可以輸入你的IVAP .C [適當的頻率],並按下回車鍵,例如:.C 132.975。

9,切換到 Unicom(如果沒有空管周圍)

如果沒有空管網上的地區,你飛,你應該調整到122.800 Unicom 頻率(文字僅頻率)和廣播你的意圖。 當聯通飛行,保持一個良好的看出來,可能在你的區域內運行的其他業務。

在“聯通”的頻率在這裡IVAO是一個純文本的頻率。 這意味著,你在這個頻率所有傳輸只能通過文字進行。 因此,當你選擇這個頻率,你就不會自動加入TeamSpeak通道。

聯通是不被用來作為一個聊天通道。 它應該僅被用於操作消息。 您應該使用內IVAP的悄悄話功能,聊天,個別人。

當你第​​一次加載模擬飛行,默認頻率為122.950。 如果沒有空管在出發機場,請記得首先調聯通122.800,或者你可以發送你的意圖在錯誤的頻率。

提示:聯通的頻率並不意味著聊天與其他飛行員。 如果你想聊天的你IVAP另一名飛行員和空中交通管制,類型.chat [飛機或空中交通管制呼號],按下回車鍵和一個聊天窗口會打開。


  1. 試點用戶將無法連接到網絡,而位於跑道或滑行道,因為這可能會導致與其它飛機發生衝突。 (IVAO規則6.1.4)
  2. 在每次飛行中,所有試點用戶通過批准的試點軟件提交飛行計劃所需。 (IVAO規則6.3.2)
  3. 在沒有空中交通管制的區域,試點用戶應檢查空中交通管制定期與聯繫相應的空管站時,要求這樣做。(IVAO規則6.3.5)
  4. 有很多的資源在這個網站上提供協助。 你可以找到你所需要的這個頁面 。


玩得開心! 這是一個令人難以置信的上癮的嗜好。 一旦你開始在網上滿天飛,你將永遠不會再回到線下飛行,並會問,為什麼你不早點做吧! 我期待著您與我們在香港飛行!


本教程將告訴您加入IVAO作為一個虛擬的空中交通管制(ATC)所需的步驟。 它的目的是要給大家介紹使用的工具,以及一些非常基本的說明在這個新的環境下如何“表現”的簡短概述。


1. 登入IVAO.AERO和加入HK-DIV(香港分部)

a. 選擇香港分部 Division: “Hong Kong” (不是中國 China)
b. 第一封電子郵件,在提交申請後,您會收到一封包含了一組ID和密碼的電子郵件用作確認登記.
c. 第二封電子郵件在報名確認後,包含以下信息:

  • 會員帳號(即IVAO ID號)
  • IVAN密碼(於IVAC,IVAP和Teamspeak 2使用)
  • 網站密碼d (於總部網站IVAO論壇使用)
  • 管制員/飛行員等級


2. 下載IVAC





3. Teamspeak 2 (ATC語音)

我們使用TeamSpeak 2方案為話音通信。 文字交流是允許的,但聲音是首選。 Teamspeak包括在IVAC下載包,並將於IVAC的安裝過程中自動安裝。

重要提示:IVAO只用TeamSpeak 2版兼容如果你有TeamSepak 3已經安裝了,安裝我們的版本呢

一旦你安裝並運行Teamspeak,有一些設置,你必須改變。 打開設置→聲音輸入/輸出設置 。

你應該選擇“一鍵通”的方式,按“設置”中選擇的關鍵。 在這裡,您可以看到鼠標BTN 2(鼠標滾輪)已被選定為按鍵通話鍵。 現在,你想要傳送到的頻率試點每一次,你必須先按下按鍵通話鍵,說話,然後放手推的通話鍵。 避免使用“語音激活”的方法,因為這會打開你的麥克風時的噪聲拾取這樣的背景噪音,甚至你的呼吸,可以將其關閉。 然後你可以將信道發射了而不自知。

4. 下載並加載一個扇區雷達文件 Sector File

一個扇區的文件是“地圖”的雷達屏幕上顯示出來。 它包含了有關機場的位置和佈局,如助航,導航定位和航空公司以及空域的邊界導航數據信息,數據層。 根據所提供的細節,這也顯示出類似的跑道/滑行道佈局在機場或海岸線,河流和道路的地理信息。

工作在ATC的地位,它是必不可少的,你獲得這樣的部門文件。 一旦您加入我們的事業部作為控制器,並記錄在我們的網站與您的Facebook帳號,您可以下 。 記得閱讀過我們下載前香港扇區文件手冊 :

一旦你已經下載了sectorfile,你必須與你的IVAC加載它。 按PVD按鈕,然後加載SectorFile並選擇適當的sectorfile。


5. 第一次連線

現在,我們將帶您作為觀察員出席香港機場。 作為一個觀察者,你可以自由地觀看交通飛來飛去,你可以聽聽活躍的ATC。 你沒有工作,這意味著你並不掌管任何流量呢。


連接到網絡的第一次之前,一個重要的考慮因素:你的第一個連接,應該是作為一個觀察者,沒有實際的空中交通管制工作。 這將幫助你讓自己熟悉的軟件和IVAO同時避免麻煩,飛行員誰遲早會與您聯繫的間隙。 使用的機會,主動ATC頻率收聽和學習!

現在,按下連接按鈕 。


  • 呼號:您的呼號。 此時,您將連接作為一個觀察者,所以呼號可以是任何東西,但必須與“_OBS”結束。 我們建議您使用除法縮寫後跟您的姓名縮寫,例如:ZA_MR_OBS。
  • 真實姓名:您認為您IVAO註冊的全名。
  • VID:已分配給你,當你加入你的IVAO的VID。
  • 密碼:當您加入IVAO被分配伊万密碼。
  • 服務器地址:要連接到服務器。 為了獲得最佳性能,請使用一個自動選擇的。 不要使用培訓服務器。 它僅適用於預定的培訓課程!
  • 端口:保留此框,因為它是!
  • 聲音:選擇有IVAC自動連接你到一個TeamSpeak服務器。




6. 上線成為航空交通管制員

作為航空交通管制的IVAO網絡上的第一個連接,需要在你控制的地方採用的程序有基本的了解。 請檢查您司的網站,這些程序及圖表的機場。


  • 在連接之前作為有效的ATC站,要確保你有適當的部門文件要求的文件和圖表準備。 飛行員將依賴於你有你的領空和機場,以及其程序的基本知識。
  • 對於你的第一個步驟,我們強烈建議您連接作為地線或塔台控制在一個不太擁擠的地方去適應新的環境和工作。

一旦你已經準備好這些項目,你可以嘗試建立連接。 使用所提供的章節“第一個連接”,這些變化的步驟:

  • 呼號:輸入VHHH_DEL(許可席)或VHHH_GND(地面席)相應。
  • 配音:由於強烈推薦使用語音程序,勾選框,並選擇合適的服務器。



  • IVAC成立於所選TeamSpeak服務器的連接,但沒有創建空管通道。 這樣做你自己選擇頻道→創建新通道在TeamSpeak。 請輸入您的呼號 – 你IVAC使用的相同! -在名稱字段中,然後按創建通道 。 
  • 切換IVAC到適當的頻率。 飛行員會撥打您的ATC站公佈的頻率與您聯繫。 確保IVAC被調諧到它的好! 要做到這一點,選擇第一個選項卡中的COMMBox並鍵入//123.456,你的頻率(DEL為121.6和GND為122.55)更換號碼並按下ENTER鍵 。 觀察Tab切換到輸入頻率的標題。

7. 建立ATIS

在大約一個機場最重要的信息是包含在ATIS。 “ATIS”代表自動終端信息服務 。 作為ATIS發射大約一個機場重要的狀態信息,必須正確設置它是非常重要的。 氣象數據自動包括在內。 您應該添加跑道信息(目前跑道使用了出發地和目的地),過渡高度/變位,必要時一些重要信息(如“07R跑道關閉”或“TD VOR無法使用”)。

重要的是:即使跑道主要分配的風向,並在過渡值可以從圖表中獲得,實際程序可能會有所不同。 因此,你應該從約標準程序事​​先當地分部尋求信息!

提示:有關ATIS以及如何更多的信息,正確設置你的ATIS,檢查ADC的書,第3章 。

8. 與飛行員的互動

一般情況下,這兩個最基本的ATC這裡IVAO立場是“接地”(xxxx_GND)位置。 作為地面控制器,你將負責所有的飛機上移動的機場地面,不包括跑道。 這意味著你的工作將會發出IFR間隙和引導從大門到跑道和對面的飛機在安全,正常和迅速的方式。 對於你的職責控制器的各種空管崗位的詳細信息,請檢查,例如在我們網站上的空管標準作業程序 。 在通信過程中使用的措辭的實例可在上述鏈接中找到,以及。

作為IVAO 的管制員,你會用你的IVAC屏幕“看”的網絡流量,並使用語音或文字與他們溝通。 下面你可以看到你的IVAC屏幕看怎麼樣一個例子。

  1. 飛行地帶。 當您選擇一個航班,它會顯示一個集合的飛行計劃中最重要的部分(始發地,目的地,路線,請巡航飛行高度等)。
  2. 這就是每一個航班是您在雷達屏幕上 – 在雷達目標。 它是由一個小的方形(飛機的實際位置)和其標籤。 該標籤由本機(當前地面速度和高度,飛機和其他類型)的最重要的實際信息。
  3. 該commbox。 通過commbox,您可以使用文本飛行員溝通,獲取機場METARs,通過與其他飛行員和管制私人聊天說話(和更多!)。

提示:在你開始你的職業生涯作為一個虛擬的空管,你可以加入其他控制器的通道,並聽取了溝通。 這會讓你更熟悉控制器的用語!

玩得開心! 這是一個令人難以置信的上癮的嗜好。 一旦你開始在網上做的ATC,你將永遠不會再回到線下空管模擬,並會問,為什麼你不早點做吧!

航空管制 – 簡介

Clearance Delivery

出發許可 Clearance Delivery

Clearance Delivery 顧名思義….就係發出發許可的人

但係咩係 Clearance 呢?


1. 你的目的地
2. 你的離場程序 (即係起飛之後要行的路線)
3. 你的航空電碼

佢的英文名就係叫 Hong Kong Delivery….係會用 129.9 頻道的

首先一個 Clearance Delivery 要睇的就係部飛機交出黎的飛行計劃書
如果佢無飛行計劃 (flight plan) 的話就當然無得俾佢飛啦!

好似飛台灣的話應該會寫 OCEAN V3 M750
(咁我地就可以發 OCEAN2A/OCEAN2B 俾佢飛去 OCEAN 喇)
而飛中國的飛機應該會寫 BEKOL 依個點….(即係羅湖附近)


1. 目的地唔駛解啦….就係部飛機本身要去的地方

2. 離場程序….依個就要參考番有關的航空圖喇

好似飛台灣主要就用 OCEAN2A (07R 跑道)
/ RASSE3A (07R 晚上十一點之後用…唔駛飛過維港嘈親大家訓覺)
25L 跑道就會用 OCEAN2B 喇….

3. 航空電碼….就係一個四位的數…(只得 0 到 7….係無 8 同 9 架!)
(如果搞錯左就會認錯飛機架喇! 所以真係好重要)
香港起飛主要都係用 53XX / 35XX

我地 IVAO-HK 都有一個自動派電碼的程式…


Hong Kong Delivery, Cathay 408, Boeing 747-400, stand S33 with information GOLF, request IFR Clearance to Taipei

(即係佢停左係 S33 閘口要求你俾出發許可)

CPA408, good evening, Cleared to Taipei, RASSE3A, Runway 07R, Squawk 5323.

(許可至台北, 起飛後跟 RASSE3A 的路線去飛, 用 07R 跑道, 航空電碼 5323)

Cleared to Taipei, RASSE3A, Runway 07R, Squawk 5323, CPA408


CPA408, readback correct, contract Ground 122.55 when ready.

(如果岩的話…咁你就同佢講覆述正確, 叫佢去 122.55 頻道搵 Ground Control)

Appendix 1:
07R 跑道做例子用(平日11的點前)
所用的離場路線 (Standard Instrument Procedure)如下:

北:中國(北京等)/歐洲 (如英國): BEKOL3A去到BEKOL加入航道A461)

東北(廈門/上海):LAKES2A (之後經V1到DOTMI加入航道 A470)

東北(台灣/日本/韓國): OCEAN2A (之後經V3到ENVAR加入航道 M750)

東南(菲律賓/印尼/澳洲): OCEAN2A (之後經V4/V5 到 NOMAN/SABNO加入航道 A461/A583)

南(新加坡/越南西貢): PECAN1A (之後經V12 到 EPDOS L642 EPKAL加入航道 L642)

西南(新加坡/越南西貢): PECAN1A (之後經V11到 IDOSI P901/A1 IKELA 加入航道P901/A1)

西(越南河內/曼谷): PECAN1A (之後經V10 到 SIKOU 加入航道 R339A/202)

Ground Control

地面管制 Ground Control

Ground Control 的工作更簡單…

依樣野我地就叫做 Pushback 喇….(因為飛機係無後波的)

而香港本身就有特定的後推程序, 叫做 red, blue 同 green
不過係 IVAO 大多數機師都唔識的話我地就會用方向黎講喇

咁唔同的路我地都有唔同的名….好似最近 07R同佢平衡的就有 H J 同埋 K 喇

另外係未入跑道我地就已經要交俾 Local Control 架喇….
因為跑道係人地的範圍, 你無啦啦放左部機入去可能會炒機架嘛!

1. 後推的方向同埋會唔會影響其他飛機
2. 滑行的路線同埋會唔會影響其他飛機 (可以叫佢係某個位停低等消息的)
3. 香港的大氣壓力用黎俾飛機調整佢的高度計用….依個係 ATIS 就會搵到 (D-QNH 一欄)


Hong Kong Ground, CPA408, stand S33, ready for start up and push back.

(佢係閘口 S33 隨時可以開動引擎同後推喇)

CPA408, start up and push back approved, facing west if able. Report ready for taxi.

(你望到後面無影響其他飛機就可以俾佢向西方面後推, 到可以滑行就通知你)

Start up and push back approved, facing west, CPA408


We are ready for taxi, CPA408


CPA408, taxi to holding point Runway 07R via taxiway H7 H, H1, QNH 1017.

(你叫佢由 H7 滑行道轉入去 H 再去到 H1 到達 07 跑道的等待點
香港大氣壓力係 1017)

Taxi to holding point Runway 07R via H7, H, H1, QNH 1017, CPA408.


CPA408, contact Hong Kong Tower South, 118.4

(差唔多去到跑道前你就可以叫佢轉去 118.4 去香港塔台, 交俾佢地俾佢起飛喇)

Contact Tower 118.4, CPA408

Local Control

塔台 Local Control

Local Control 需要管理的地方就係所有用緊的跑道

同埋機場附近 2000 英呎範圍內的目視飛行飛機




其實有一條 1 in 60 rule 即係話一部分如果每快 60 knots 每分鐘就會行多一浬
如果部飛機係四浬飛緊 180 knots….
就即係每分鐘行 (180/60 = 3浬)….咁即係一分鐘多d 就到地
咁點可能放到部飛機起飛呢? 所以作為 Local Control 一定要時刻做好計算

依個我地叫做 Line up and wait….(進入跑道等待)

多數大型飛機的話兩架機要相隔 90 秒左右…令佢地起飛之後保持至少 4 浬的間隔
如果大型機接住係中型機就要再耐少少喇 (120/150秒)

取自 ICAO Doc 4444:

1. 跑道係咪清空俾人起飛降落
2. 跑道係咪就快有機降落….無理由要降落的人就起飛的機嘛
3. 夠唔夠流暢等一部機起飛後就叫另一班即刻起飛
4. 兩班機之間要相隔幾多先唔會影響到大家的飛行
5. 如果跑道唔適合降落要即刻叫佢 Go Around!

對話範例 (起飛):

Hong Kong Tower , CPA408 holding point J1 Runway 07R, ready for departure.

(佢已經係 07R 跑道的等待點等起飛….Take Off 依個字我地除左 Cleared for Take Off 外全部用 Departure 代替….以免人地聽錯走左去起飛)

CPA408, after the preceding departing Boeing 777, line up and wait runway 07R.

(過左前面起飛的 波音 777, 入去跑道等待起飛)

After the Boeing 777, Line-up and wait runway 07R, CPA408.

(佢會重新覆述一次…佢答你起飛咪大獲? 所以一定要好小心!)

CPA408, surface wind 160 degrees, 6 knots, cleared for take-off runway 07R.

(風向 160 度 6 浬, 07 跑道許可起飛)

Runway 07R, cleared take-off, CPA408.


CPA408, contact Departure 123.8.

(到佢起飛左之後就叫佢轉去 123.8 同離場席聯絡喇)

對話範例 (降落):

Hong Kong Tower, CPA408 with you, 5 miles on final.

(佢係 5 浬外面降落緊)

CPA408, continue approach, preceding traffic on the runway.

(前面有飛機係跑道上面, 繼續飛向 07R 跑道但唔可以落地)

Roger, continue approach.


CPA408, surface wind 160 degrees, 6 knots, Cleared to land, Runway 07R.

(風向 160 度 6 浬, 07R 跑道可以降落)

Cleared to land runway 07R, CPA408.


CPA408, Take first right on K3 and contact Ground frequency 122.55.

(第一個路口轉右進入 K3 滑行道同轉去 122.55 聯絡地面管制)

Contact Ground 122.55, CPA408.


Non-Radar Control

非雷達管制 Non-Radar Control

係好耐以前 (或者 2004 年香港未有西沙中繼站之前)
香港都有好多地方係雷達去唔到的 (其實係因為地球弧度關係而唔準確)
而果d 航管員的呼號就會叫做 Hong Kong Control 而唔係 Hong Kong Radar 喇….


1. 垂直間隔: 兩部飛機飛緊唔同的高度 – 而飛機轉高度都要通知
2. 水平間隔: 兩部飛機飛緊唔同固定的路線 – 中間有足夠的空間分開佢地
3. 前後間隔: 兩部飛機係同高度同路線同速度 – 用時間分開佢地


Radar Control 1

雷達管制 (1) Radar Control

雖然佢係雷達上係 2D 的平面….
但實際上天空係一個 3D 的空間
所以要隔開佢地…..分別有水平間隔 (Horizontal) 同垂直間隔 (Vertical)….

垂直間隔黎講 1000 呎至 FL290 間隔為 1000 呎
係縮短垂直間隔 (RVSM) 空域即 FL290-FL410 inclusive
合資格的飛機間隔為 1000 呎….(非 RVSM 空域為 2000 呎)
而係 FL410 以上為 2000 呎

而水平間隔黎比較複雜….跟據 MATC 係咁樣分類:

所以係 IVAO 我地簡化為:

離機場 30浬內 – 3 浬
離機場 30 浬至 80 浬 – 5 浬
離機場 80 浬以外 – 10 浬


Radar Control 2

雷達管制 (2) Radar Control

首先要介紹的在 IVAO 入面基本的管制:


1. 航向 / 飛行距離
2. 高度
3. 速度


1. 高度分隔
2. 速度控制
3. 路線長短
4. 等待盤旋
5. 流量管制

1. 高度分隔就係將唔同的飛機分開唔同高度…
例如當使用 07 跑道的時間….起飛的航線無論係 PECAN
定係 OCEAN 定係 LAKES 都一樣會同進場的飛機交匯….
計埋啟德的 Visual Step Down 同 IGS Approach….
近 GUAVA 就有一個 Hot Spot 好似下面張圖咁:

例如只容許佢爬升到 5000 / 7000 / 9000 呎等
而由東面進場的航機就下降到 FL110 (TD) / 8000 呎 (GUAVA 附近)

2. 速度管制就係使用唔同速度控制去令飛機排隊
Rules of thumb 主要記住 1 in 60….
同樣航向兩架機排隊的話….地速後機每快 60 節佢每分鐘就會追近 1 浬
就好似前機行緊 GS 270 後機行緊 GS 330….兩者相隔 6 浬
咁後機每分鐘就會追到 330-270 / 60 = 1 浬

3. 路線唔同….後機太快又未減得切速….另一方法就會俾一個航向令佢蛇行
即係俾角度佢向左偏航 (例如 30 度) 之後再後右面偏航….好似 zigzag 型咁飛
但係要記住 1 in 60….即係如果你拉開佢一度的 Track….
60 浬之後佢就會偏航 1 浬….如果係兩度就會係 30 浬偏航一浬喇….
30 度呢? 就會 1 X 60/30=2 ie..每兩浬就偏航一浬喇….

而又例如上圖兩機 EIN3344 同 DLH101 夾角度 30 度飛埋一齊….
兩者交接點為 60浬….如果我地需要間隔 10 浬….
而只係帶走DLH101 跟係 EIN3344 後面排隊的話
跟據以下的表我地就要帶佢偏航 40 度喇….

如果唔夠 60 浬咁點? 如果只係得番 40 浬咁點?
咁我地可以用下面個表用 60 浬計出黎的結果係 10 浬
再乘以 60 除你需要的相隔浬數
即 40 (度) X 60/40 (交接浬數) = 60 度
咁就要偏向 60 度喇….

點樣俾唔同的航向先可以控制每一班機所需要的 track miles
(當然重有雷達的 check distance 輔助)
咁樣就只不過係速度同距離的問題….用埋 1 in 60 rule 就好易解決
(IVAO 成日都慢轉彎又聽唔到) 咁你的計劃就會全部推倒重來喇….

4. 等待盤旋
如果飛機太多….可以帶佢地入去 Holding Pattern 轉圈

5. 流量管制

去到最後自己都頂唔順喇…..Esp 打風之後飛哂入黎
當然係叫其他 sector 或者直接聯絡其他地方的航空管制唔好放機入黎啦?

Visual Flying Rules

目視飛行 Visual Flying Rules


香港的目視飛行空域 (唔計飛出去或者飛得高過 3000 呎的空域)
1. UCARA (Uncontrolled Airspace Reporting Areas)
2. Control Zone 
3. SKARA (Shek Kong Airfield Reporting Area)
(IVAO 如果有石崗塔台上線的話自動變成 Sek Kong MATZ 受 ATC (RAF) 管制)
4. ATZ (Aerodrome Traffic Zone)

UCARA 係一個 Class G Airspace 即無管制空域
但係 UCARA 需要保持同航管員保持聯絡以提供有限的航情資料
而 Control Zone 係一個 Class C Airspace
航管員係 Control Zone 亦要負責提供目視飛行同儀器飛行間隔
而且 Class C Airspace 的飛機亦需要服從航管員有關的指示同許可


Original Flight Plan

最後更改 Flight Plan 係 Green Island 截返:

Inside UCARAs
PA: HK Information, Cessna PA, Kadoorie outbound, 1500 ft, entering NEW, 2 POB
INFO: PA … QNH 1020, squawk 5274, no known traffic in New Town
PA: QNH 1020, squawk 5274, copy no known traffic, Cessna PA
PA: HK INFO, Cessna PA, Tolo
INFO: No known traffic in Tolo
PA: HK Information, Cessna PA, entering Port Shelter
INFO: 1 Cessna and 1 Helicopter operating in Port Shelter
PA: Copy Information, Cessna PA
PA: HK INFO, Cessna PA, approaching Junk Bay, 2000 ft, shortly entering Waglan, request FREQ change
INFO: Roger, change to HK ZONE 120.6
PA: 120.6, Cessna PA

因為係 Class G Uncontrolled Airspace 的關係:
以上的航管員除左一開始通知機師 香港大氣壓力 QNH 同埋俾航空電碼外
而機師亦只需要係每一區或每三十分鐘通知航管員佢地的高度, UCARA 地區名同佢的 intention 就得….
但係佢係進入 Class C Control Zone 前係需要先轉到該航管員的頻道得到許可先可以入去

Inside Controlled Zones
PA: HK ZONE, Cessna PA, Junk Bay, 2000 ft, entering Waglan
ZONE: Cessna PA, follow flight plan route, maintain 2000 ft
PA: Roger, follow flight plan, 2000 ft, Cessna PA
PA: HK ZONE, Cessna PA, confirm maintaining 2000 ft for westbound harbour?
ZONE: Cessna PA, maintain 2000 ft in controlled airspace
PA: Roger, 2000 ft in controlled airspace, Cessna PA
PA: HK ZONE, Cessna PA, abeam Shun Tak Heliport, 2000 ft, due to (sunset) time REQ deviate from flight plan and turn back at Green Island
ZONE: Request Approved
ZONE: Cessna PA, HK ZONE, QNH 1021, confirm you are approaching Port Shelter?
PA: QNH 1021, PA is heading to Junk Bay and (shortly) going to Port Shelter.
ZONE: Roger, INFO is soon closed down. Continue blind transmission on 121.0.
PA: Roger, 121.0. Cessna PA.
PA: HK ZONE, Cessna PA, entering PSH, changing FREQ.

至於入到 Class C Control Zone 就會嚴格好多…..
好似維多利亞港咁繁忙就有好多時候未見到飛機就會提供埋高度限制 (見到兩部機都係目視飛行的就唔需要….由得佢地自己相隔就得)
所以你會見到佢一係 Flight Plan Route 或者好似 Cleared to XXXX 咁….亦會問機師佢係咪要去番 UCARA

有RH, JW, WR, JN 同 WE 係香港飛行總會的飛機
重有62, 83 就係政府飛行服務隊的飛機…
EMU2 就係香港去澳門的直昇機…


航空管制 – 基礎知識

Flight Strips

飛行管制條 Flight Strips

飛行管制條 (Flight Strips)…係用黎記錄飛機的進度
一條紙仔可以幫到航管員了解飛機的有關資料, 飛行狀態,同埋有關的指示
當雷達故障要改為非雷達管制的時候….一條紙條就係最後的 back up….

係飛行管制條上面….係印上左航班編號, 起點和目的地, 機種,

係香港大致上黎講….黃色代表起飛航班, 藍色代表進場航班,


0005      =  離開香港情報區時間             S107      =  停機坪
FL370   =  高度 (31000英呎)                  A333      =  機型 A330-300
H           =  重型飛機                               CPA785 =  呼號(國泰785)
N0490   =  對地速度(490浬)                   3506     =   航空電碼 (只有 0-7)
25L       =   起飛跑道                              OCEAN2B= 起飛航線
LAKES V1= 飛行路線                              IWR:  飛機的設備
WRRR = 目的地 (依個係舊 ICAO code…即現時 WADD 峇里島機場)
I          = 儀器飛行
W        = 可以使用“縮短垂直間隔” 空域
R        =  能夠使用“區域飛行”

而係 IVAO 黎講我地就會使用 e-strips….當你按下航班的時候
而我地就可以係上面加上許可高度, 速度, 航向同定航點
亦可以係上面寫上有關資料….如降落 07R 或使用雷達導引等….

OMDB = 目的地 (杜拜機場)
2015      =  航空電碼 (只有 0-7)              I      =  儀器飛行
FL300   =  高度 (30000英呎)                  B77W     =  機型 波音 777-300ER
H           =  重型飛機                               N0500   =  對地速度 (500浬)
EMIRATES = 呼號名稱 (阿聯酋航空)     UAE2601=  呼號 (阿聯酋2601)
VHHH    = 起飛機場 (香港國際機場)      13:00     = 預計起飛時間 (UTC 計) (1300 即 2100 HKT)
PECAN V10 SIKOU R339 BSE A599 CTG B465 CEA A791 PRA A325 KC A454 PASOV B540 BUBIN = 全條飛行路線


修正氣壓 (QNH) 與標準氣壓 (QNE)

簡單黎講就係當地的大氣壓力…好似打風的話 QNH 就會減低
而冷峰到的話 QNH 就會升高…修正氣壓下的高度我地會用英呎 Feet 代表

而標準氣壓 QNE 就係 Standard 1013.25 百帕斯卡 (hPa)
英國以前叫做毫巴 (minibars) 而美國同日本會叫 29.92 英吋水銀柱 inHg….
而係標準氣壓下的高度我地就即係 飛行空層 Flight Level….如 FL350
就係以標準氣壓以下的 35000 feet….唔代表係實際的三萬五千呎
(1 hPa 大約等於 30 呎的分別)

當由修正氣壓 QNH 轉去 Standard 1013 hPa 我地就叫做 Transition Altitude
而相反由 Standard 1013 hPa 轉番去當地的 QNH 我地就叫做 Transition Level

咁幾時先轉去 Flight Level….幾時先轉去 Feet 呢? 就係各處鄉村各處例
每一個地方的 Transition Altitude 同 Transition Level 都係唔同
係歐洲你會聽到 FL90 而係美國你亦會聽到 13000 feet 唔好覺得奇怪喇….

以香港為例….Transition Altitude 就係 9000 feet…即係過左 9000 呎就轉
又或者飛離開香港機場 50 浬又未到 9000 呎都會轉…

而 Transition Level 就係:
(a) 980 hPa or above – FL110 (絕大部分時間都係依個)
(b) 979 hPa or below – FL120

而 Transiton Altitude 同 Transition Level 中間就即做 Transition Layer
由於有機會同上下兩層相隔唔夠 1000 呎的標準間隔…..
即係係香港黎講我地係唔會俾你飛 10000 feet 同 FL100…


標準離場程序 (SID) 及 過渡程序 (Transition)

標準離場程序 (SID) 及 過渡程序 (Transition)

SID 即係 Standard Instrument Departure
就好似 OCEAN 就係 OCEAN2A/2B/2C/2D SIDs 的離場點

而每條跑道都有唔同的離場程序去唔同的離場點 (東南西北都有)

正如上次提到東北方向都有幾條 : 飛向中國汕頭方向的 LAKES SIDs
又或者 飛向東北或東南方向的 OCEAN SIDs 飛向台灣同菲律賓方向
而多數標準離場程序 (除美國鐘意用路線的特點命名外)
主要都係依佢的離場點, 佢的更改次數同埋佢的跑道命名….
好似 OCEAN2A 就係一條 第二次更改版本….
使用 07R 跑道同以 OCEAN 為離場點的標準離場程序….

(不過美國的機場係好鐘意有 Radar Vector SIDs 令航管員有更大空間帶飛)

去到終端管制區的邊界….而係香港就以 V1-V12 命名….
就好似 OCEAN SIDs 就可以接四條唔同的 Transition…
好似有 V2 ELATO (A1) V3 ENVAR (M750) 去台灣飛行情報區….
重有 V4 NOMAN (A461) 同 V5 SABNO (A583) 去菲律賓飛行情報區

而接住 Transition 的呢…就係唔同的國際飛行航道 (Airways)…


航路 (Airways)


上次提過….係 1950 年開始英國出現左第一條航路
即係 Green One Airway….而香港係 1954 年亦將香港附近的航路
寫入第一版的航空資料匯篇入面….當時有 Green 8, Amber 1 等等的航路

(除歐洲會係 FL195 以上的高度航路加上 U….如飛到首都倫敦的 UL980)

A1 / M750 / A461 / A583 / M772 / M771 / L642 / P901 /
A202 / R339 / R473 / A461 / A470


成條飛行路線係可以好長的….以下就係 CPA830 飛往紐約的飛行路線:
而佢行的就係 OCEAN SIDs 接 V3 Transition 上到 M750 航路…



變成歐洲第一個 Free Route Airspace….


標準進場程序 (STAR) 及儀器進場程序 (IAP)


STAR 即係 Standard Terminal Arrival Route
同 SID 掉轉….係一條固定的航道將飛機由一個進場航點 
(由航路轉入進場程序) 一直帶到一個初始進場點 (IAF)

就以 SIERA STARs 為例….飛機係 R473 航路飛到 SIERA
由中國進入香港飛行情報區時….就會接到 SIERA7A/C 或 SIERA6B/D
前往 LIMES (7A/C) 去07 跑道 或 TD 東龍島 (6B/D) 去 25 跑道….
而四條路線都係唔同….C/D 較長所以可以用黎做排隊的用途


至於去到 IAF 之後就會接住另一條儀器進場程序 (IAP)
即係 Instrument Approach Procedure….
而每一條跑道使用唔同種類的進場系統都會有唔同的 IAP
就好似儀器進場 (ILS), 跑道定航台望場 (LOC 即無下滑道 Guideslope)
又或者 多向導航台進場 (VOR) / 歸航台進場 (NDB)
同埋最新的區域導航/所需性能導航進場程序 (RNAV/RNP)

而香港 07 跑道的 IAF 就係 LIMES, 而 25 跑道的 IAF 就係 TD 東龍島
如果當飛機已經收到有關 IAP 的許可…佢就可以跟據程序飛行同下降到指定的高度….以 ILS Approach 為例….飛機由 4500 呎或其他航管員指定的高度進入 LIMES 再依航線下降到 1700 呎截取儀器降落系統 (ILS) 飛到 07L 跑道….

咁做係比較靈活…而且係飛機排隊 (或有時插隊) 進場的安排有用得多


協議書 (LOA) 與 飛行空層規劃 (FLAS)

例如台北, 馬尼拉, 三亞, 廣州, 湛江, 珠海同埋汕頭
分別有唔同的航路通去唔同地方….好似 A470, A1, M750 等等

(LOA Letter of Agreement) 訂明兩者係飛機經過兩地的處理….

而其中入面包括航路的限制, 兩地交接點, 隔離標準同埋高度的管理等等
而飛行空層規劃 (Flight Level Assignment Scheme FLAS) 就係其中一樣

係 90 年代尾之前係東南亞各區係無有關的區域性規劃
到依家唔同地區的航空管理機構都會係協議書訂明無需事先協調的批准空層 (no-PDC levels)
而依個就整合而成為飛行空層規劃 (FLAS) 有關的空層規定喇….


備註: FLAS 詳情請參閱 AIP Hong Kong ENR1.8 (因為以下圖片未必係最新版本….)